1. Condensed, Bald. “Inside the fonts: optical sizes.” Type Network,

2. Lupton, Ellen. Thinking with Type: A Critical Guide for Designers, Writers, Editors, and Students (3rd Edition, Revised and Expanded). Princeton Architectural Press, 2024, 
page 158 and 160.

If a reader picks up any book off a bookshelf, they will likely be able to find approximately five to six different point (pt) sizes in use. It is achieved through the hierarchy of layout and typography, as the appearance of textual elements hints at their function and relative importance. It can be advantageous to structure type by blending different typefaces, as some of the examples mentioned by Bald Condensed, né Yves Peters in the article “Inside the Fonts: Optical Sizes like “Retype’s Laski Slab and Laski Sans,” or with less obvious and more abstract relationship such as “Kontour’s Odile and Elido (whose names are palindromes of each other), or Occupant Fonts’ Prensa and Amira (whose relationship is more conceptual).”1

In the book “Thinking with Type”, Ellen Lupton writes, “A layered hierarchy is more like an ice cream sundae, loaded with sizes, styles, and textures. If you love mathematical systems, try building a hierarchy with type scale, a set of proportional type sizes derived mathematically.”

In layered hierarchy theory, each element contributes uniquely to the overall structure, from easily digestible text and striking headlines to subtle details adding depth. Often overlooked by new designers, these nuanced components, akin to visual texture, play a pivotal role in unifying a design.2